The General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways, as the central body of government administration competent for matters of national roads, performs the responsibilities of administrator of national roads and implements the state budget with regard to their construction, maintenance, modernization and repair. Road investments are financed out of national funds by means of the National Road Fund and out of EU aid funds. In the section devoted to EU funds appropriated for the development of the road network in Poland you will find basic information about these funds, as well as specific information about the projects implemented by GDDKiA out of EU funds – about the aims, range and costs of the project, planned date of its implementation, state of progress of the works, the contractor etc. Additionally the projects have their own websites, whose links you will find below the article describing a given project.
1. Financial perspective 2007 – 2013
The Operational Programme “Infrastructure and Environment” for the years 2007-2013 (OPIE) was adopted by the European Commission by Decision No. K(2007)6321 of 7 December 2007. This is the largest programme in the history of the European Union, as part of which projects are implemented that are co-funded out of funds of the European Regional Development Fund and the Cohesion Fund. The main aim of the Programme is to increase investment-related attractiveness of Poland and its regions by the development of technical infrastructure with simultaneous protection and upgrading of the environment, retention of cultural identity and developing territorial cohesion.
Over EUR 37 billion has been allocated for implementing the Operational Programme “Infrastructure and Environment” for the years 2007-2013, which constitutes over 40 percent of the whole of the cohesion policy funds for Poland. About EUR 28 billion will come out of EU funds (from the Cohesion Fund – over EUR 22 billion, while from the European Regional Development Fund – almost EUR 6 billion). EUR 10 billion has been allocated only for road projects.
As part of OPIE GDDKiA implements projects regarding the construction of motorways, expressways and ring roads in routes of national roads of key significance.
On 2 October 2007 the commissioner for regional policy, Danuta Hübner, signed a decision by the European Commission adopting for implementation the Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland. That programme constitutes an additional element of support from structural funds, which will strengthen the operation of other programmes in the area of five voivodeships: Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Podlaskie, Lubelskie, Podkarpackie and Świętokrzyskie. As part of the Programme projects of key importance for social and economic development in these regions will be implemented. Over EUR 2,2 billion has been allocated out of EU funds for implementing the Programme.
As part of OP DEP, GDDKiA implements projects regarding the construction of ring roads on key sections of national roads, indicated in the Operational Programme, in the area of the voivodeships of eastern Poland.
ENPI Lithuania-Poland-Russia 2007-2013
The Operational Programme has been prepared in accordance with the Regulation (EC) No. 1638/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 2006 laying down general provisions establishing a European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI Regulation)1, the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 951/2007 of 9 August 2007 laying down implementing rules for cross-border cooperation programmes financed under the Regulation (EC) No. 1638/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down general provisions establishing a European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (Implementing Regulation)2, the Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No. 1605/2002 of 25 June 2002 on the Financial Regulation applicable to the general budget of the European Communities3, Commission Regulation (EC, Euratom) No. 2342/2002 of 23 December 2002 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No. 1605/2002 on the financial Regulation applicable to the general budget of the European Communities.
The aim of the Programme is strengthening contacts between Poland, Russia and Lithuania by intensifying bilateral and trilateral cooperation. The Programme offers support for socio-economic development and increase of the quality of citizens’ life throughout the area covered by it. Lithuania-Poland-Russia Cross-Border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013 continues and expands the cooperation in the border area of the three countries, which has been developed in the framework of the 2004-2006 INTERREG IIIA/Tacis CBC Lithuania-Poland-Kaliningrad Region of Russian Federation Neighbourhood Programme. The main objective of the Programme is to promote cross-border development processes.
2. Budgetary perspective 2000 – 2006
The Cohesion Fund is an instrument of EU structural policy, but is not counted among structural funds. Aid from the Cohesion Fund has national range, rather than regional (as is the case with structural funds). The supreme goal of the fund is to strengthen social and economic cohesion of the EU by financing large projects making up a coherent whole in the scope of environment protection and transport infrastructure. Aid from the EU for the environment sector and the transport sector reflects the philosophy of permanent and sustainable development. It is about increasing the economy’s productivity and competitiveness mostly by the development of transport infrastructure, but at the same time not at the expense of the environment and its resources, and thereby at the expense of future generations.
ISPA, i.e. Instrument of Structural Policies for Pre-Accession in Poland was one of three (aside Phare and SAPARD) instruments for EU pre-accession aid for 10 candidate states. Its main aim was to support economic and social cohesion by co-funding large investment projects in the environment and transport sector. On 1 May 2004, following Poland’s accession into the EU, the ISPA fund finished its operation in our country. All the projects that obtained the possibility of co-funding within ISPA and were not completed, were implemented within the Cohesion Fund.
The European Regional Development Fund is one of 4 structural funds in the European Union serving the purpose of supporting structural changes in EU regions. Structural funds serve the purpose of supporting regions (in Poland a region should be understood as a voivodeship), in which the average income per capita does not exceed 75% of the average income in the EU; in contradistinction to the Cohesion Fund, which is addressed to EU countries with a GDP of up to 90% per capita of the EU average.
The Sector Operational Programme - Transport (SOP-T) was one of seven operational programmes serving the purpose of implementing the Community Support Framework for the years 2004 - 2006 (CSF). That programme, together with the transport section of the strategy for using the Cohesion Fund, developed CSF goals, specifying the directions, priorities, actions and the amount of funds allocated for the development of the transport sector. As a staring point compliance of the document was retained with current directions, both of the transport policy, and regional policy of the EU and Poland.
3. Pre-accession Funds
The PHARE Programme (English: Poland and Hungary Assistance in Restructuring Economies) was created in 1989 on the basis of a European Commission initiative. From 1999 Phare was the main instrument in preparing candidate states for EU membership. In the EU budget for the years 2000-2006 the amount of the funds was determined at EUR 1,56 billion annually for all countries. The moment Poland acceded to the EU the PHARE programme was replaced by structural funds.
4. Other EU Funds
TEN (Trans-European Network) is an EU aid programme functioning as a separate budget line in the EU budget. That programme is directed towards supporting Trans-European Networks for transport (TEN-T), for power (TEN-P) and for telecommunication (e-TEN).
The subsidy thresholds from the TEN-T budget are as follows: study projects - 50% of the whole of the eligible costs; investment costs - 10 %; trans-border projects - 20%. The aid may also be in the form of subsidising credits and credit guarantees of the European Investment Bank or another financial institution.